The table does, indeed, take some liberties with the definition of “programming language,” but that does not obviate the essential underlying theme of the study.

The study looks at “economic productivity” in terms of number of work hours to deliver 1,000 function points. This may not strictly apply to all kinds of applications.

For example, Excel is extremely productive, but only in the context of spreadsheet modelling. You certainly wouldn’t use Excel for general programming. Transact-SQL is extremely productive, too, but only for narrowly defined database applications. You certainly wouldn’t use it for web, mobile, and desktop development.

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